Sakura Student’s Japanese Lesson (3): Koto ni naru, koto ni suru, you ni naru, you ni suru! ^^

Well…. I understand completely if reading this title gave you a migraine because it sounds like a Japanese tongue twister! But please do not despair! These grammar rules are actually not as difficult as they appear, once you understand the differences that is ๐Ÿ˜‰ So, w/o further ado, I will outline these grammar points and give you some examples to help you use them in practise โค

1) Koto ni naru &ย koto ni suru (ใ“ใจใซใชใ‚‹+ใ“ใจใซใ™ใ‚‹)

Both ‘Koto ni naru’ and ‘koto ni suru’ can be roughly translated as ‘to decide’. However, the difference between the two is that ‘koto ni naru’ sounds more official and less personal than ‘koto ni suru’.

Also whenever, these two grammar points are used, they must follow the plain form of the verb used in the sentence. For instance, ่ฒทใ„ใพใ™ใƒผ๏ผž่ฒทใ†(koto ni naru/koto ni suru).

For example: ‘My parents have decided that I will go to Japan’=็งใฎไธก่ฆชใŒๆ—ฅๆœฌใซๆฅใ‚‹ใ“ใจใซใชใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใงใ™ใ€‚Note that the present continuous form is used in this case, as the decision is still ongoing.ย vs/ ‘I have decided to participate’=ใฏใ„ใ€ใซใ•ใ‚“ใ‹ใ™ใ‚‹ใ“ใจใซใ—ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚Do you see the difference? ๐Ÿ™‚ The thingย  below will also help with what tense to use ‘koto ni naru’ & ‘koto ni suru’.ย 

Koto ni narimasu: To hear the rumour of a decision. Koto ni narimashita: The decision has been officially announced. Koto ni natteimasu: The process/ongoing of a decision. Koto ni natteimashita: A decision that was made but has now been changed.

And let’s do the same for ‘koto ni suru’:

Koto ni shimasu: A new decision. Koto ni shimashita: Something someone decided to do. Koto ni shiteimasu: The decision someone made is still in effect.

ใ‚„ใฃใŸ๏ผYou’re halfway through so have an inspirational pic on the house, to help keep you motivated!

Pikachu 2

^ You’re mind being blown from all the powerful Japanese you’re learning!

2) You ni naru & you ni suru (ใ‚ˆใ†ใซใชใ‚‹+ใ‚ˆใ†ใซใ™ใ‚‹๏ผ‰

You ni naru‘ is used to describe when something or someone has changed their behaviour. I.e. Something you couldn’t do before, but can now do. For example ‘I can now speak Japanese’=็งใฏไปŠใ€ๆ—ฅๆœฌ่ชžใŒ่ฉฑใ›ใ‚‹ใ‚ˆใ†ใซใชใ‚Šใพใ™ใ€‚Same as before, I will show how tense/meaning can affect how ‘you ni naru‘ is used.ย 

You ni narimashita‘: Can mean that there is a gradual change. For example, you may slowly stop coming to class. If the change is more abrupt, this is a different grammar point entirely, which I will not be delving into today!

You ni suru‘, roughly means ‘to try‘. For example, if I want to say ‘From tomorrow, I will try to come’=ๆ˜Žๆ—ฅใ‹ใ‚‰ใ€ๆฏŽๆ—ฅๆฅใ‚‹ใ‚ˆใ†ใซใ—ใพใ™ใ€‚

And there you have it! I hope this helped you improve your Japanese (if only a tiny bit) ๐Ÿ˜€ I hope to do more lessons like this in the future, as it also helps me consolidate my Japanese revision. Anyway, hoped you enjoyed learning these grammar points!

้ ‘ๅผตใฃใฆใใ ใ•ใ„๏ผ

๐ŸŒธSakura Student๐ŸŒธ

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Japanese Lesson (2): Passive, Causative and Causative Passive

Confused taiga

So far (aside from Relative Clauses), one of the most difficult grammar points of Japanese, is the Passive, Causative and Causative Passive form! Even the name sounds horrible, doesn’t it :’D Anyway, I’m going to teach you how to conjugate and use this form to make your Japanese sound even more natural and native!ย 

1) The Passive Form

The passive form is known as the ‘passive voice’ in English and is used to describe when something is done to you. For example, ‘I was punched’/ (the action of being punched was done to me). To conjugate this verb, you must follow the grammar rules for each Group:

Group 1: When conjugating Group 1 verbs into the passive form, you must use the ‘nai’ form, but add ‘reru’ instead of ‘nai’.

For example: ้ฃฒใ‚€(nomu) ‘to drink’->้ฃฒใพใชใ„(nomanai) ‘to not drink’->then add ‘reru’ ้ฃฒใพใ‚Œใ‚‹(nomareru) ‘it was drunk’. E.g. The water was drunk by Mariko: ใพใ‚Šใ“ใƒผใ•ใ‚“ใซๆฐดใ‚’้ฃฒใพใ‚‰ใ‚Œใพใ—ใŸใ€‚(Mariko-san ni mizu wo nomararemashita).ย Note, the particle ‘ni’ is used to describe the person or verb, to which the action is done to.ย If there are two people in the sentence, then both particles ‘wa’ and ‘ni are used’. For example, ‘Takashi san was requested by his mother to do the shopping’: ใŸใ‹ใ—ใƒผใ•ใ‚“ใฏใŠๆฏใ•ใ‚“ใซ่ฒทใ„็‰ฉใ‚’ใŸใฎใพใ‚Œใพใ—ใŸใ€‚Takashi is the topic of the sentence so ‘wa’ is used in this example.ย 

Group 2: Just use the stem of the verb and add ‘rareru’. For example, ‘้ฃŸในใ‚‹->้ฃŸใน->้ฃŸในใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹ใ€‚

For example: The chocolate was eaten by Emma ใ‚จใƒžใƒผใ•ใ‚“ใซใƒใƒงใ‚ณใƒฌใƒผใƒˆใ‚’ใŸในใ‚‰ใ‚Œใพใ—ใŸใ€‚

Group 3: The irregular verbs conjugate as follows… ใ™ใ‚‹๏ผˆใ•ใ‚Œใ‚‹๏ผ‰and ๆฅใ‚‹๏ผˆๆฅใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹๏ผ‰

2) The Causative Form

The Causative Form is used to describe when an action is forced upon you or someone/something else. To conjugate it is as follows…

Group 1: Use the ‘nai’ form, but add ใ›ใ‚‹instead of ใชใ„ใ€‚Group 2: Use the stem form of the verb and add ‘ใ•ใ›ใ‚‹ใ€‚Group 3: ใ™ใ‚‹๏ผˆใ•ใ›ใ‚‹๏ผ‰and ๆฅใ‚‹๏ผˆๆฅใ•ใ›ใ‚‹๏ผ‰ใ€‚

Examples:ย The coach made the student run 10 kilometres: ‘ใ‚ณใƒผใƒใฏๅญฆ็”Ÿใ‚’๏ผ‘๏ผใ‚ญใƒญ่ตฐใ‚‰ใ›ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚Even though the child didn’t want to go to school, her mother made her go to school: ‘ๅญไพ›ใฏๅญฆๆ กใซ่กŒใใŸใใชใ„ใฎใซใ€ใŠๆฏใ•ใ‚“ใฏๅญไพ›ใ‚’ๅญฆๆ กใซใ„ใ‹ใ›ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚The teacher gets the students to learn a lot of kanji every day: ๅ…ˆ็”ŸใฏๆฏŽๆ—ฅๅญฆ็”Ÿใซๆผขๅญ—ใ‚’ใŸใใ•ใ‚“ๅ‹‰ๅผทใ•ใ›ใฆใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚

Note: The Causative Form can also be used for when someone ‘lets’ you do something else.ย For example, the coach let the student rest ‘ใ‚ณใƒผใƒใฏๅญฆ็”Ÿใซไผ‘ใพใ›ใพใ—ใŸโ€™ใ€‚

3) The Causative Passive Form

The Causative Passive Form is basically just Causative, in the passive voice (SHOCKING, I know xD). So instead of saying ‘My mum forced me to do my homework’, it turns into ‘I was forced into doing my homework by my mum’. Slightly confusing, I know but bear with! ๐Ÿ˜€ The Causative Passive Form is conjugated as follows…

Group 1: Use the ‘nai’ form, but knock off the nai and add ‘ใ•ใ‚Œใ‚‹‘, so ้ฃฒใ‚€ becomes ้ฃฒใพใชใ„ and then ้ฃฒใพใ•ใ‚Œใ‚‹ใ€‚Group 2: Use the steam and add ‘ใ•ใ›ใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹โ€™ใ€‚Finally, for Group 3, ใ™ใ‚‹ turns into ใ•ใ›ใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹and ๆฅใ‚‹turns into ๆฅใ•ใ›ใ‚‰ใ‚Œใ‚‹ใ€‚

Examples: Takashi’s parents made him come back home by 5pm every day: ใŸใ‹ใ—ใƒผใ•ใ‚“ใฎใ”ไธก่ฆชใฏๆฏŽๆ—ฅใŸใ‹ใ—ใƒผใ•ใ‚“ใ‚’๏ผ•ๆ™‚ใพใงใซๅฎถใซๅธฐใ‚‰ใ›ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚

So yeah…. (AND BREATHEEEE)! ๐Ÿ˜€ You now know the foundation of the Passive, Causative and Causative-Passive of all these forms, well done! Obviously, this will take a lot of practise so just try and make your own sentences using a variety of verbs and this should cement your knowledge!

้ ‘ๅผตใฃใฆไธ‹ใ•ใ„๏ผ^^

๐ŸŒธSakura Student๐ŸŒธ

Sakura Student’s Japanese Lesson (1): How to say ‘when’! :D

I wanted to start making Japanese lesson blog posts as I think it’ll help me consolidate things I’ve learnt (+ hopefully help anyone out there who stumbles upon my blog :3). I’d recommend having already learnt Hiragana and Katakana as this will make my examples far easier to understand! ้ ‘ๅผตใฃใฆไธ‹ใ•ใ„๏ผ

Happy Konata.jpg

In Japanese, there are numerous ways to say ‘when’ depending on the context. However, I’m going to start with the most general way to express it. That word is……. *drum roll please*….

  1. ย ‘ใจใ’ ย ๐Ÿ™‚

When you use the term ‘ใจใ’, it’s used to describe a period of time when something has occurred. For example:

I broke my leg whenย I was playing football yesterday: ็งใฏใใฎใ†ใ‚ตใƒƒใ‚ซใƒผใ‚’ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจใใ€่ถณใ‚’ใŠใ‚Šใพใ—ใŸใ€‚Note: You can use ใจใ with any present continuous (ใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹๏ผ‰verb apart from ใฏใ„ใ‚‹๏ผˆๅ…ฅใ‚‹๏ผ‰ใจใ as this is grammatically incorrect.

The way you conjugate ใจใ also depends on the action taking place. For example, if I said:

i) ‘I saw a cat when I was returning home’: ็งใฏๅฎถใซๅธฐใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใƒใ‚ณใ‚’่ฆ‹ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚Because you haven’t arrived home yet/the action isn’t complete, you must use the the plain form of the verb in the present tense.

VS

ii) ‘I saw a cat when I’d returned home’: ็งใฏๅฎถใซๅธฐใฃใŸใจใใ€ใƒใ‚ณใ‚’่ฆ‹ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚Because you’ve already arrived home/the action is complete, you must use the plain form of the verb in the past tense.

You can also use ใจใ after adjectives and nouns!ย 

E.g. When I was a child… ็งใฏๅญไพ›ใฎใจใใ€‚ใ€‚ใ€‚

When you’re free: ใฒใพใชใจใใ€‚ใ€‚ใ€‚

To reiterate, the conjugation is as follows…

  1. Verb (dic.form) + ใจใ
  2. Verb (nai form) +ใ€€ใจใ
  3. Verb (ta form) +ใ€€ใจใ
  4. I adjective +ใ€€ใจใ
  5. Na adjective +ใ€€ใชใจใ
  6. Noun +ใ€€ใฎใจใ

Examples in practise:

> When I ate some sashimi for the first time, I thought that it was delicious: ็งใฏๅˆใ‚ใฆใ•ใ—ใฟใ‚’้ฃŸในใŸใจใใ€็พŽๅ‘ณใ—ใ„ใจๆ€ใ„ใพใ—ใŸใ€‚

>When you are driving a car you shouldn’t use your mobile phone: ่ปŠใ‚’้‹่ปขใ—ใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใ‘ใ„ใŸใ„้›ป่ฉฑใ‚’ไฝฟใ‚ใชใ„ใปใ†ใŒใ„ใ„ใงใ™ใ€‚

I’ve lost my wallet. I think I lost it when I was running in the park: ็งใฎใ•ใ„ใตใ‚’ใชใใ‚Šใพใ—ใŸใ€‚ๅ…ฌๅœ’ใง่ตฐใฃใฆใ„ใ‚‹ใจใใ€ใชใใ—ใŸใจๆ€ใ„ใพใ™ใ€‚

Hooray, you’ve learnt the basics! Practise this and you’ll be a master using โ€™ใจใโ€™ in no time! ๐Ÿ˜€ However, there are other ways to say ‘when’ in Japanese…

Angry himouto chan

ย ^An accurate representation of my face when I learnt this.

I’ll probably make another blog post to explain the others; but for now, I hope this post was informative and you’re one step closer to mastering ๆ—ฅๆœฌ่ชž๏ผ^^

– Sakura Studentย 

Gudetama ๐Ÿณ๐Ÿ’ค

Gudetama is Sanrio’s greatest creation (imo ๐Ÿ˜) and what’s not to love about him? He’s lazy (#relatable ๐Ÿ™‹๐Ÿป) and he’s an an anthropomorphic egg. Enough said.

The term Gudetama is derived from Gude ‘ใใง’ which is onomatopoeia in Japanese for something or someone lacking energy and Tama ‘ใŸใพ’ which comes from the word Tamago ‘ใŸใพใ”’ meaning egg. So Gudetama is quite literally a lazy egg ๐Ÿณ!

I’ve been obsessed for Gudetama for quite a while which is evident by looking at some of my recent purchases…

I even had some Gudetama socks which I have worn so much that they now have huge holes in them ๐Ÿ˜ฑ I loved them too much ๐Ÿ˜ฅ

There is also an animated series of Gudetama which you can see below! They’re super short but really funny and useful for Japanese ๐Ÿ‘๐Ÿป

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=X4tYMGphIqE

I hope you have a wonderful day wherever you are! (^_^)

๐ŸŒธSakura Student๐ŸŒธ

My Survival Guide to Kanji (โŒ’โ–ฝโŒ’)

One of the biggest challenges of learning Japanese is definitely the infamous and dreadedKanji! ๐Ÿ˜ฑ

IMG_5222ย I could talk for ages about how many hours (days and weeks would probably be more accurate) I have spent revising Kanji and don’t even get me started on the various Onyomi and Kunyomi readings (HINT: they’re a pain in the butt!! ๐Ÿ‘). However, I have been learning Kanji for a year and thought I’d share some of my revision techniques for anyone who’s interested! ๐Ÿ˜€

1) Invest in some Kanji books ๐Ÿ“š

IMG_5197

This is by far my favourite series of Kanji Book! It gives you a set amount of Kanji to memorise per week and there are lots of exercises to help consolidate what you’ve learnt. They are quite pricey but are worth it in my opinion!

2) Write Kanji everywhere!

IMG_5195

If you have Kanji written everywhere you look, you won’t be able to forget it! I like writing Kanji on my hand (as you can plainly see xD) but there are many other ways to do this. One of my friend’s flat at Uni is covered in Japanese post-it notes and she’s a whizz at Japanese so maybe it’s the key to success!

3) Write sentences out in Japanese using the Kanji you’ve learnt!

I must confess, I don’t do this as much as I should which is quite lazy on my part ๐Ÿ˜… but it really helps you actively remember Kanji instead of passively writing them out on a piece of paper.

4) Practise makes perfect! ^^

Basically, the more work and revision you do, the more Kanji you will remember so don’t forget to work hard ๐Ÿ’ช๐Ÿป There’s no magical way to easily learn Kanji but these are just a few of my fave ways to remember them so I hope I’ve helped or given you a few ideas! ๐Ÿ˜„

ใŒใ‚“ใฐใฃใฆ๏ผ

๐ŸŒธ Sakura Student ๐ŸŒธ