So far (aside from Relative Clauses), one of the most difficult grammar points of Japanese, is the Passive, Causative and Causative Passive form! Even the name sounds horrible, doesn’t it :’D Anyway, I’m going to teach you how to conjugate and use this form to make your Japanese sound even more natural and native!
1) The Passive Form
The passive form is known as the ‘passive voice’ in English and is used to describe when something is done to you. For example, ‘I was punched’/ (the action of being punched was done to me). To conjugate this verb, you must follow the grammar rules for each Group:
Group 1: When conjugating Group 1 verbs into the passive form, you must use the ‘nai’ form, but add ‘reru’ instead of ‘nai’.
For example: 飲む(nomu) ‘to drink’->飲まない(nomanai) ‘to not drink’->then add ‘reru’ 飲まれる(nomareru) ‘it was drunk’. E.g. The water was drunk by Mariko: まりこーさんに水を飲まられました。(Mariko-san ni mizu wo nomararemashita). Note, the particle ‘ni’ is used to describe the person or verb, to which the action is done to. If there are two people in the sentence, then both particles ‘wa’ and ‘ni are used’. For example, ‘Takashi san was requested by his mother to do the shopping’: たかしーさんはお母さんに買い物をたのまれました。Takashi is the topic of the sentence so ‘wa’ is used in this example.
Group 2: Just use the stem of the verb and add ‘rareru’. For example, ‘食べる->食べ->食べられる。
For example: The chocolate was eaten by Emma エマーさんにチョコレートをたべられました。
Group 3: The irregular verbs conjugate as follows… する（される）and 来る（来られる）
2) The Causative Form
The Causative Form is used to describe when an action is forced upon you or someone/something else. To conjugate it is as follows…
Group 1: Use the ‘nai’ form, but add せるinstead of ない。Group 2: Use the stem form of the verb and add ‘させる‘。Group 3: する（させる）and 来る（来させる）。
Examples: The coach made the student run 10 kilometres: ‘コーチは学生を１０キロ走らせました。Even though the child didn’t want to go to school, her mother made her go to school: ‘子供は学校に行きたくないのに、お母さんは子供を学校にいかせました。The teacher gets the students to learn a lot of kanji every day: 先生は毎日学生に漢字をたくさん勉強させています。
Note: The Causative Form can also be used for when someone ‘lets’ you do something else. For example, the coach let the student rest ‘コーチは学生に休ませました’。
3) The Causative Passive Form
The Causative Passive Form is basically just Causative, in the passive voice (SHOCKING, I know xD). So instead of saying ‘My mum forced me to do my homework’, it turns into ‘I was forced into doing my homework by my mum’. Slightly confusing, I know but bear with! 😀 The Causative Passive Form is conjugated as follows…
Group 1: Use the ‘nai’ form, but knock off the nai and add ‘される‘, so 飲む becomes 飲まない and then 飲まされる。Group 2: Use the steam and add ‘させられる’。Finally, for Group 3, する turns into させられるand 来るturns into 来させられる。
Examples: Takashi’s parents made him come back home by 5pm every day: たかしーさんのご両親は毎日たかしーさんを５時までに家に帰らせました。
So yeah…. (AND BREATHEEEE)! 😀 You now know the foundation of the Passive, Causative and Causative-Passive of all these forms, well done! Obviously, this will take a lot of practise so just try and make your own sentences using a variety of verbs and this should cement your knowledge!